What is sociology?

Sociology is an interesting field that examines human social relationships and institutions. Sociology is a diverse and broad field whose subject matter range from racial and social class divisions to the shared beliefs and norms in a community, crime, religion, family, state, leadership, social stability, radical change in societies, among others. The unifying factor in all these sub-branches is understanding how human action and consciousness shape and are influenced by surrounding societal structures and cultures.

What is covered in different fields of sociology?

Sociology is an interesting and enlightening field that explains complex and important issues to our personal lives, communities, governments, and the world. At a personal level, sociology can explain people’s relationships, beliefs, cultures, family, behavior, and identity.  From a societal level, it can explain and examine issues on law, poverty, disease, education, crime, and prejudice. While at a global level, sociology explains phenomena such as immigration, war and peace, trade, economic development, and population growth. According to the American Sociological Association, sociology can be broadly divided into the following areas:

  1. Biology and sociology
  2. Comparative/ historical approaches
  3. Crime, law, and deviance
  4. Culture
  5. Economics, markets, and consumerism
  6. Education
  7. Family and life courses
  8. Gender and sexuality
  9. Global issues
  10. Inequalities and stratification
  11. Medicine and health
  12. Place and environment
  13. Politics
  14. Race and ethnicity
  15. Religion and spirituality
  16. Social change
  17. Social psychology and interaction
  18. Technology
  19. Theory and knowledge
  20. Work and organizations
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Diverse Society

Below are 150 sociology research topics that you can use to develop informative essays. Always focus on a field that you love because it is easier to undertake a research on a subject that you are passionate about.

  1. Race, nationality, and ethnicity topics


  • Racial segregation in schools.
  • Effects of racism on literacy levels across different groups of society.
  • Racial stereotypes on workplaces.
  • Interracial marriages across different historical times.
  • Interracial marriages and dilution of racial stereotypes.
  • Race and police brutality in the USA.
  • Race and class issues in society.
  • Drug abuse, poverty, and crime in relation to race.
  • What are suitable measures for preventing race and class stereotypes?


  • What are the differences and similarities between race and ethnicity?
  • How does ethnicity impact on social order?
  • What are the effects of multicultural societies on ethnicity?
  • What are the ethnic and class issues in a modern society?
  • How did Italians and Irish become “White” in the USA?
  • Does ethnicity play a role in family relations- marriages and child adoption.


  • Does dual citizenship affect individuals’ patriotism levels to their country of birth?
  • How does a country gain a national identity?
  • What are the trends in immigration and assimilation in Europe and the USA?
  • What are the effects of immigration on the formation of a national identity among immigrant families?
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Mass Media

  • How are {young women, people of African descent, disabled persons, LGBTs, celebrities, politicians, men…, etc.} portrayed in modern media?
  • Sexuality in modern movies and animations?
  • Feminism movements in modern cinema?
  • Effects of video games on children behavior?

Social Media

  • Social media on societies’ view of the world
  • Social media as a cultural influencer
  • Cyberbullying and harassment with the rise of social media
  • Social networking with the rise of social media
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