Description of the Historical Development or Series of Events

Baroque Orchestra

The baroque period was accompanied by a development in instrumentation.  Among the many instruments developed during that era was the orchestra. The orchestra was an ensemble instrument with its sections consisting of strings, woodwinds, brass and percussions. The baroque orchestra was directed from the harpsichord by a conductor.  The part called basso continuo was played on the organ or harpschord.  The group ob ensemble instruments were applied in harmonies and for ensuring the ensemble was held together.

The player s used the cello or bassoon to play bassline.  Harpsichord, a constituent of the ensemble, is a keyboard instrument whose strings were hammered instead of being hammered. Usually, the instruments of the Baroque orchestra involved strings, woodwind, brass, and continuo.  A good example of the baroque orchestra in use is Vivaldi’s The Four Seasons.

One Music Compositions Connected to the Baroque Orchestra

Concertos are among the major compositions connected to the Baroque orchestra. A concerto is a large composition plus at least one soloist. Vivaldi, Bach and Handel are some of the composers of concertos in the Baroque period.  The two kinds of concertos were the concerto grosso and the solo concerto. The two concertos are characterized by three movements, fast, slow and fast.

The concerto Grosso is written specifically for a set of solo instruments plus a large ensemble but the solo concerto is written for one solo instrument plus orchestra.  For the Baroque solo concerto, the soloist has to play some passages that are brilliant and technically demanding.  Examples of the Baroque concerto Grosso include the Bach’s Brandenburg concertos.  A good solo violin concerto is the Vivaldi’s Four Seasons.

                 

Discussion of how Orchestra is Associated with its Historical Context

Before the Baroque period, there was no specific instruments and performers for different sections of music.  Again, any instrument in the ensemble could be used to play any part of the music and performers were not subdivided to perform particular sections.

They could play all parts of the music. Unlike during the Renaissance, the Baroque period instrumentation was artistic because composers could distinguish the specific instruments to use for a particular work. The individuals with the ability to choose and use the specific instruments for a particular work became artists in that kind of work.

Moreover, idiomatic writing governed the baroque compositions due to the incorporation of the former embellishments into standardized melodic gesture compositions. Baroque emphasized on a soloist virtuoso, and characteristic techniques to be written for standardization purposes. Hence, the art of idiomatic writing developed unlike the non-standardized performances in the Renaissance period.

On matters texture, there was a shift from contrapuntal polyphony to monody and treble bass polarity. Along the melody and treble base was the basso continuo. Here, the accompaniment of the solo melody and the bass line formed the important lines. The inner voices filled in harmonies. Fourthly, the orchestration was developed during the baroque period.

The concertato style arose during the early seventeenth century.  In the style, different groups were chosen at will to play specific sections in different styles. Too, the smaller groups could play simultaneously in different manners. Unlike in the renaissance period, the baroque period was accompanied by order in instrument ensemble and style of performance. Hence, orchestration formed artistic composition in the baroque period.

To conclude, numerous changes regarding thinking about purpose, writing and music performance accompanied the baroque period. A group of intellectuals partly influenced those revolutionary changes. The group, called Florentine Camerata, lived in Florence. Moreover, the changes were evolutionary since the changes only advanced on the forms and practices of the Renaissance period.

These transitions originated from Northern Italy’s cultural centers. This later extended to Rome, France, Germany, Spain and England.  During the baroque period, instrumental music shifted in four areas namely: texture, idiomatic writing, orchestration, and instrument use. The shift turned the music from a drama to art and literature rather than drama.

References

Jenson, J., De Castell, S., Taylor, N., & Droumeva, M. (2008, November). Baroque Baroque revolution: high culture gets game. In Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Future Play: Research, Play, Share (pp. 105-112).

Another Sample of university essay on money paper

Topic: Implementation Plan Critique

The implementation plan I presented captured critical elements of the project, making it a good guideline for the management team. It outlines key milestones in the execution process to help track the progress. For example, the first milestone noted in the implementation plan is the board’s approval and availing of resources to the project management.

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An implementation plan ought to provide a comprehensive analysis of the sources of funds to execute the project. Besides, the plan fails to provide mechanisms to integrate existing technologies and Starbucks’ resources to reduce the cost of the project. For instance, the use of the experienced human resource at the company is part of cost-reduction measures.

The use of personnel from Starbucks’ human resources to undertake some tasks lowers the project’s overhead cost. The collaboration between Starbucks human resource department and the project manager is an area that the plan ignores. Nonetheless, I believe the implementation plan provides a good roadmap for the project’s execution.