Writing a research paper is extremely demanding for most students because it examines a lot of concepts taught in class and requires one to justify the topic and make an in-depth analysis of the chosen topic of interest. As a result, learners at times seek research proposal writing services from experts like TermPaperSite.
A research proposal is the first step in writing a research paper and is essentially the stage where the student justifies the chosen topic of interest and convinces his/her supervisor that the research is relevant to his/her course.
Due to the complex issues examined in most research proposals, students often seek help from professional writers. We have completed hundreds of dissertations from undergraduate to Ph.D. academic level. Therefore, do not hesitate to contact us for help.
Why You Should Seek Our Research Proposal Writing Service?
Research proposals are always longer than a standard paper and require to be written in a specified format.
At a minimum, a research proposal should show the reader that the research is original and relevant. A student should prove that he/she is familiar and knowledgeable on the concepts been examined and that she will use the correct approach/ methodology when investigating the matters of concern. Lastly, the proposal should establish that the research is feasible. Often, the writing format for the research proposal is unique for each university and school. However, the general structure of this paper is as follows:
- Title page
- Literature Review
- Research Design and Methods
- Implications and Contributions to Knowledge
- Expected findings
- Ethical Statement
- Reference List
- Research Schedule
TermPaperSite Research Proposal Writing Service Structure
It is always the first page of the research proposal, and it includes the following:
- The title of the research project
- Your name/ school ID
- Your supervisor’s name
- Your course
- Your institution and department
- The date of submission
Abstract and Table of Content
Most research proposals have an abstract page. An abstract is usually between 150 to 300 pages long and it indicates why the research is been undertaken, the approach been used, and the expected results.
The table of content indicates pages where various sections such as chapters and subheadings are located in the research proposal. Importantly, it enables a reader to quickly navigate to particular parts of the paper.
In this section, a student is expected to explain why they are undertaking the research and what they will write in the paper. The learner should introduce the topic, give background and context of the case, and finally outline the research problems and research questions.
The purpose of this section is to convince the reader that the research is relevant and will contribute to the field. As such, the student should compare and contrast with theories and studies from other scholars when writing this section. The student should also be critical of the different approaches used by previous scholars when examining a related topic, and he/she should show how the research is related to these studies.
The research methodology describes the overall approach that the student will use in his/her analysis. Thus, the student is required whether he/she will undertake qualitative or quantitative research. Whether he/she will collect original data or use primary or secondary sources, and whether the research design is descriptive, experimental, or correlational. Further, the student should explain any software or tools that will be used in the analysis, and why they are the most suitable.
Implications and Contributions to Knowledge
A student should complete the research paper in a strong note by identifying the possible implications of the research paper. Since a proposal is not actual research, it is always important for the student to state the findings that he/she expects in the actual research paper and the possible effects of the expected findings. Also, the student should state how he/she will conform to expected ethical norms when conducting the research.
Here, the student lists all sources used in the research paper. The references should be written according to the writing format recommended by the professor. Also, the student should ensure all references are correctly cited in the research proposal.
Research Schedule and Research Budget
In the research schedule, the student creates an outline of when he/she will complete specific tasks in the actual research paper. The research budget section requires the student to state the amount that he/she expects to use in the research. Some research tasks, such as those requiring the use of primary data, traveling to distant places, or undertaking complex activities can be expensive and tedious. Thus, the research budget can enable the school to plan on how to finance the student’s research work.
Our Research Proposal Writing Service
Our writers are experts in writing thesis papers. Therefore, they will not have any challenge in completing your research proposal once you have an order for research proposal writing service. All our writers have Master’s or Ph.D. degrees from reputable universities. Some are unemployed professors; therefore, they can competently complete your task. From just $10 a page, we can complete your task. With us, you can be assured of timely completion, quality work, fair pricing, plagiarism free work, and 24/7 customer support.
- Each task is assigned to an expert writer in a specific field. For example, if you are studying economics and you have a research proposal paper. Your task will be assigned to a writer with a Master’s degree that has also studied economics and has written various dissertations. Consequently, you will get a perfect paper that can assure you of an excellent score.
- You are allowed to make part payments for dissertation proposals. We understand that it can be difficult to make full payment for the entire paper at once if you don’t have a stable flow of income. You can pay for your research proposal in parts. This approach allows our clients to raise cash while their work is been undertaken.
- You have direct access to your writer, and this allows you to comfortably follow-up on your order. You can send a message to your writer and request for an outline or seek any clarification on the progress of your task.
Benefits of Getting Research Proposal Writing Service from Us
TermPaperSite has the most experienced and professional writers in the industry. Therefore, your work is always handled by an expert whenever you order from us. Some of the benefits you will enjoy when you request for research proposal writing service include the following:
All our writers are highly knowledgeable and experienced. We only hire writers that have a Master’s or Ph.D. Degrees from reputable universities. Also, all our experts have over 4 years of experience in academic writing, and these make them experts in writing dissertations. Each dissertation is assigned to a writer that has done a similar course as the client, and this ensures the writer is aware of what is expected in the research project.
We adhere to the highest levels of standards in our research proposal writing service. We are aware that a research proposal is just the first part of the actual research project. Therefore, we deliver the highest standards and this makes our clients consider us when undertaking the actual research project. You are assured of quality work that is not plagiarized, timely delivery of your work, professional communication with your writer, and cooperation with both the support and the writer.
Dedicated customer care
Our customer support is always available 24/7. Therefore, if you have an emergency or need any clarification regarding your research proposal you can contact them using our live chat, email, or phone. We are always ready to respond to your concerns.
It is extremely difficult to find quality writing service and affordable prices. However, we have designed an efficient system that allows us to have minimal operating costs. You can order your research paper from as low as $10 a page. Also, we allow installment payment, hence you do not need to strain by paying for the entire research paper at once.
Easy ordering process
Our ordering and order management process are simple and convenient. Simply fill the order form, attach all necessary files, select your preferred writer, then make payments. Communicate with your writer on any issue. Download the complete paper once the writer completes the task. Approve the order or request for changes as necessary. You can inform the writer or customer support, and they will assist in the revision process. You will not be charged any extra fees.
Cooperating with your Writer
Ordering a research proposal from TermPaperSite is one of the surest ways of excelling in your studies. This process is not only convenient, but it is also simple and cheap.These are some of the best methods you can use to ensure you get a perfect paper.
- For one to receive a research proposal that meets his/her requirements, the student should correctly fill our order form. Remember to specify your academic level, research topic, discipline, number of pages, delivery date, and number of sources. If you have any unique set of instructions please describe them in detail in the instruction section. Also, upload any necessary files that have your instructions.
- Besides, you have the option of selecting the type of writer to write your research proposal. You can choose either, standard, advanced, or premium writers. Note that a standard is not a group of weak writers, but this category refers to writers with less than 5 years of experience in academic writing. Also, you have the option of requesting for progressive delivery if your paper is more than 15 pages. This structure allows you to preview each part of the completed paper, and this gives you the advantage of requesting modifications early as well as reviewing your task.
- Once you have filled your order form and paid for your task, a writer is assigned to complete your task. Maintain a healthy work relationship with your writer by messaging him/her and requesting for any appropriate information. For example, you should reply to messages or seek clarifications on any issue. Also, you can partner with your writer in the creation of the outline.
- Before our writers begin any task, they create a free outline of the final task for free and send a copy to the client. Here, you will approve or improve the research proposal outline to ensure the final task meets your required expectations.
- For progressive orders, always reply to the writer’s message in a good time. Also, request for revisions or clarifications on any part within the specified deadline to ensure you receive a perfectly complete task before your deadline. Once you receive a final perfect paper, you can appreciate the client for the work.
Additional Services when you Order Research Proposal Writing Service
Professors require students to submit perfect research proposals, and this is especially true for graduate students. As a result, most graduate students have to seek extra services to ascertain whether their papers are perfect. We have resolved this problem by providing extra packages to ensure all your academic needs are sorted whenever you order from us.
You can always order a “Smart Paper” in addition to your research proposal. Here, your paper will be edited by a specialist editor. You will also receive copies of journals, books, and any publications used in your work. Also, you will receive links to the electronic sources used in the paper. This strategy ensures that you receive work that meets your expectations, and that can guarantee you success in your academics.
Why We are Considered the Best Research Proposal Writing Service
We keep our promise
The main reason why people assign us their research proposals because they are sure we will complete the task as per their requirements. Our writers are highly knowledgeable, and all have Master’s degrees and more than 4 years of writing experience. Also, they have access to appropriate academic journals and books that are used in research proposal writing services.
Whenever you order a research proposal from us, you can be sure that your work is been handled by an expert in the field, your paper will be appropriately organized according to required styles, you will receive the final paper before the required deadline, and you will receive prompt communication and replies to any inquiry.
We are always accessible
It is extremely stressful to follow up on the progress of your task from unavailable customer support or unavailable writers. Academics are always stressful and expensive, and this requires clients to enjoy maximum support through their academic journey. Our customer support is always available 24/7 to reply to all messages. If you need an immediate reply to any of your concerns please contact us via our live chat. You can also reach our support through our email and phone contacts. Besides, you can privately chat with your writer from your dashboard. You can ask anything regarding your order, such as your order progress, request for any improvement on your task, or research proposal outline, and provide any extra files for your order. If you need an immediate
We know our job
All our writers are highly knowledgeable and experienced in research proposal writing. All our writers have over 4 years of experience in writing, and they all hold Master’s degrees. Whenever you order for research proposal writing service, your task is assigned to an expert that has done various similar dissertations. Besides, you are provided with a quality assurance guarantee and cash-back guarantee in case the work is below the expected quality. With us, you can be sure of excelling in your studies.
How to Make an Impressive Research Proposal
Developing an awesome research proposal can guarantee you with optimal success in your academics. A major challenge for most students is how to create an awesome research proposal. Despite the many fears that students can have, writing a research proposal is actually quite simple. The entire task is a step-by-step process, which can be easily completed if one meticulously completes all the stages.
In most universities, a student is first required to complete their research statemen before writing the research proposal. A research statement is a paper of a between 1000 and 2000 words, where a student justifies their reasons for undertaking the research. Before completing this paper, the write should clearly understand the outlook of his/her professor and try to develop an impressive paper that convince the supervisor on the importance of the research. Furthermore, the research should aim at making a valid case that justifies the importance of the study.
The first step in writing a research proposal is developing a research topic. You must always undertake a research on a topic that is relevant to your course. For example, if you are studying a degree in Financial Management, it is wise to center your research on Financial issue rather than accounting or economics issues. Always make your topic as precise as possible to your study. Since your professors would like to see appropriate applications of formulas, concepts, and theories taught in your course, it is obviously much easier limiting your scope to your area of specializing than researching on a different field. Noteworthy, learners often change their research topic as they progress further in writing their paper. Therefore, expect to modify or improve your research title/ topic depending on the new discoveries that you will make when undertaking research.
Steps to ensure that your Research Proposal is Perfect
Identify Your Area of Interest
Identifying an area of interest will guide you on what to research. A typical course requires a student to learn numerous concepts, which are often not included in an average research paper. It is the student’s duty to establish the area of interest where he/she desires to investigate. Often, this area of interest centers around a specific concept of topic taught in class. For example, a student studying Financial Management can be interested in the following topic: Effects of Debt Financing on Long-term Financial Success of Automobile Companies in the USA. The can also chose the following topic: Effects of Financial Planning on Liquidity Levels of a Companies in Real estate Sector in the USA. From the two examples, it is clear that one research topic majors on asset financing while the other is on financial planning. Therefore, the leaner must ensure that he/she has great mastery on their chosen area of interest. Besides, the chosen area of interest will guide the student in the research process.
Take your Time and Conduct Thorough Research
The most important part in writing a research proposal is undertaking the research. The research paper can only be as great as what you have researched. Take your time and read plenty of works from other scholars that have undertaken related research studies. Google Scholar is a great source of relevant research studies. Besides, academic journals will inform you on how to structure your work. They will also provide you with valuable information that will be included in your literature review.
Systematically Structure Your Work as per Your Professor’s Requirements
Each school or professor requires his/her students to follow a particular structure when writing their research paper. Therefore, if you want to excel in your research paper you should follow the specific format required by your school. However, most research papers have an almost similar structure. If your school has not specified your format, just use the structure we have illustrated above.
Our huge team of writers is always ready to provide you with excellent research proposal writing service. Contact us today, and you will receive excellent service from our huge team of professional writers.
How to Make your Research Proposal Longer
If your research proposal or research paper is shorter than you had planned, then it only means that you undertook less research than expected. The absolute solution to this problem is simply undertaking greater research. Here are the primary areas that you should target.
In this section, the student makes a case as to why their research project is important. The student should read various journal articles and appropriate research articles. You can read a few extra articles and include relevant information from these copies in your research paper. This information will allow you to get more information that you can use to expand your research.
This section is always the longest part of your research paper. You can always extend this part by reading more research articles and including relevant information. Remember you should always thoroughly research on all issues that will be included as variables in your research model.
You can increase the methodology section by increasing your research scope. This strategy will ensure that you have more content to include in your literature review and introduction sections. Besides, it will provide you with greater information to include in your findings and result parts.
You can only effectively expand this section after including more variables for investigation in the methodology section. This strategy will provide you with more results to include in the conclusion section. Also, ensure that you thoroughly investigate each variable and correctly interpret the results in the findings section.
An example of a Research Proposal
Research Topic: CSR on Financial Performance: A Case-study of McDonald Incorporation
Table of Contents
Table of Figures
This research evaluates the effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the financial performance of McDonald. Although CSR is often beneficial to a community, various researchers have asserted that its impact on the financial performance of a company are varied. Some scholars opine that CSR has no significant impact on the financial performance of a company. Others, however, suggest that it has positive impacts on a company’s brand image and financial performance, although in the long term. This study established that reduction of energy consumption and levels of greenhouse gas emissions as CSR measures for McDonald do not have a significant impact on the company’s net incomes.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility, greenhouse gas, financial performance, energy consumption.
CSR on Financial Performance: A Case-study of McDonald Incorporation
Companies are gradually getting involved in corporate social responsibility (CSR) to facilitate their realization of organizational goals. CSR gives a company opportunity to integrate social and environmental concerns into different corporate operations. Through the integration of social and ecological aspects in business operations, companies can provide collaboration with various stakeholders and members of the public voluntarily. CSR can take any form depending on an organization or industry. In some organizations such as Colruyt, their CSR mainly involves activities that help to conserve the environment or improve the lives of people. For instance, the Colruyt group of companies runs different projects such as Foundation initiatives designed to help young people in Burundi to access education (Colruyt Group, 2019, p.1). CSR programs support volunteer and philanthropy efforts, while still promoting companies’ brands and image.
Management teams in different organizations recognize the importance of CSR to the business and the community (Tong & Wong, 2016, pp.126-144). However, various reasons influence the engagement of organizations in CSR. In some organizations, the reasons for performing CSR activities are creating a stronger bond between corporations and employees. Improvement in the relationship between the management of the company and the employees helps to boost employees’ morale. Employees feel valued and appreciated by employers. As a result, employees improve their commitments in helping the companies to achieve their organizational goals. Other reasons for companies’ engagement in CSR activities are attracting affluent customers, shareholders, and attain better financial performance (Tong & Wong, 2016, pp.126-144). The competitive nature of the business environment influences companies to perform CSR activities to attract more customers. By gaining more affluent customers who remain loyal to the business, a company can expand the market size of different products and services and gain a completive edge over other corporations (Tong & Wong, 2016, pp.126-144). Companies can undertake various CSR activities to involve their stakeholders in their firms’ decision-making processes. Additionally, organizations get involved in CSR actions to promote their financial performance through the expanded market and increased sales for products and services.
According to Clayborne, Varin, and Colman, (2018), companies use resource-based perspective CSR to increase their brand image and financial performance (p.2). Investment in CSR enables companies to develop new capabilities that enhance their overall performance and profitability. CSR helps in the creation of vital intangible resources related to employees. Among the main external benefits associated with CSR include reputation of the corporation (Clayborne et al., 2018, p.12). A major use of investing in CSR is the formation of corporate reputation, which is a fundamental intangible resource that helps in attracting various stakeholders to the business. Companies with an appropriate reputation may create suitable or improve relations with customers, employees, and potential investors (Clayborne et al., 2018, p.16).
Employees, customers, community groups, suppliers, some shareholders, and governments play an essential role in influencing firms to make investments in CSR (Brammer, Millington, & Rayton, 2007, pp.1701–171). As a result, different companies across the globe remain devoted to investing a massive amount of resources to CSR. However, there are some management teams in different firms who oppose the idea of investing in CSR, arguing that efforts remain inconsistent with their business goal of maximizing profits. However, an increase in needs for environmental and social accountabilities in the business world influences companies to generate the capital required to engage in CSR activities. It is important to investigate whether there are financial benefits associated with increased social responsiveness by companies. The findings of the study can influence the perceptions of management teams in different companies concerning investments in CSR (Brammer et al., 2007, pp.1701–1719).
According to Hartmann, Heinen, Melis, and Simons (2013), CSR is an essential approach for a company to safeguard against risks and increase its reputation (p.125). The strategy is applicable in dealing with food safety, social, or environmental incidence. As a result, there is an increased application of the approach in the food industry, including meat companies (Hartmann et al., 2013, pp.124-141). Through the engagement in CSR activities, companies can promote better support behaviors and attract favorable stakeholder attitudes. Implementation of CSR activities helps to improve purchase and attract investments in the company. In the long run, CSR activities act as an incentive for making customers to purchase a company’s products. Additionally, CSR activities help to strengthen company and stakeholder relationships and improve stakeholders’ promotion behaviors (Du, Bhattacharya, and Sen, 2010, pp.8-19).
The rise in urban population and the embracement of Western lifestyles has resulted in an increase in the demand for fast-food in urban dwellings (Tong & Wong, 2016, pp.126-144). Companies in the fast-food industry should create suitable strategies to accommodate the sophisticated and fast-paced lifestyle of people living in urban populations. In China, there are numerous fast-food companies in different cities in the country. As a result, there is increased competition among fast-food firms in China. Among the strategies that companies employ to deal with increased competition is CSR. According to Tong and Wong (2016), CSR helps to improve the reputation of a company and its brand image. Ordinarily, a company’s brand recognition and status help to attract customers to purchase its products and services. CSR is common among fast-food companies in China, including McDonald’s Corporation. The company is a global icon that offers customers a wide range of food items. Employees, management, and customers always have different values and attitudes. However, CSR is a significant factor that can enable various stakeholders to have similar attitudes towards an organization. Among the challenges facing McDonald’s in the Chinese market is the perception that the public holds towards the company. As a result, the company concentrates on implementing CSR activities to enhance its brand image.
The project aims at determining how corporate social responsibility (CSR) affects the financial performance of McDonald Inc. The research will create a clear link of the interrelationship between CSR and financial performance of McDonald Inc., and this will act as a useful guide for other multinational companies. Under CSR, the study will focus on greenhouse gases and energy consumption. Currently, McDonald has been reducing its greenhouse gas emissions in order to protect its community. The company has also established policies of reducing its energy use and conserving most of its current energy sources to reduce its pollution levels. The study will investigate both the negative and positive effects on the firm’s finances arising from a company engaging in CSR.
Objectives of the study are as follows:
- To find out if there is a relationship between CSR and McDonald’s financial performance.
- To establish the effects of McDonald’s greenhouse gas pollution as a CSR measure on its financial performance.
- To identify the effects of a decrease in McDonald’s energy consumption as a CSR measure on its financial performance.
Several studies focus on investigating the effects of CSR on the financial performance of companies. The focus of this study is to establish the effects of CSR on financial performance of McDonald. This part of the survey contains a literature review of the studies that relate to the study topic. According to classical economists, the main duty of businesses is to maximize the interests of their shareholders (Friedman, 1970). Therefore, companies should be strictly interested in making profits. While there is some level of truth in this view, achieving this goal should not be done at any cost because businesses are members of society, and negative side effects of careless pursuit for profits will in the long run adversely affect businesses. Since companies are part of a society, any negative effect on society also have a similar effect in their operations in the long run. The stakeholder theory supports this view by arguing that improved relationships between a firm and its stakeholders result in improved corporate and non-corporate performance of a company in the long run (Barnett & Salomon, 2012).
Although all stakeholders have an ability to affect a firm performance, their impacts and mechanism differ due to the different ways that they interact it. Stakeholders to an organization include employees, government, NGOs, customers, suppliers, other companies, customer, and creditors. The link between CSR and financial performance is not clear because of the varying conclusions that researchers have arrived at from different studies. While some researchers establish a positive relationship, others note that the relationship is negative or curvilinear. Nonetheless, Orlitzky, Schmidt, and Rynes (2003) and Margolis, Elfenbein, and Walsh (2007) assert that a positive relationship is the most common.
The variation in the measurement tools for the relationship between CSR and financial performance has been attributed to be the cause of the differences in this research. However, this difference its attributable to the complexities in measuring the value of CSR. Currently, there is a lack of consensus on the metric suitable for measuring CSR. The other challenge is on measurement issues. Often, information relating to CSR is non-financial, and this issue is compounded by the lack of a standard measure of CSR (Tschopp & Nastanski, 2014). Lastly, there is an issue of inadequate disclosure because most countries do not require companies to publish their CSR expenses (Galant & Cadez, 2017).
2.1 Corporate Social Responsibility
The perception of what amounts to corporate social responsibility (CSR) and its definition greatly differ among individuals in society. According to Friedman (1970), a company should focus on only making incomes, and this is its CSR. However, Davis (1973) argues that CSR entails consideration of issues beyond economic, technical, and legal requirements by a company. In this regard, Davis (1973) asserts that a company has responsibility to its stakeholders while Freidman (1970) opines that its responsibility is limited to its shareholders. ISO 26000 (2010) explains that CSR is the indirect responsibility of an organization that are directed by the activities and decisions of its society in a transparent and ethical manner to enable the creation of sustainable development. According to the European Union Commission (2011), CSR refers to the activities of an organization that are above the legal requirements. While the definitions of CSR differ among individuals, there is an increasing consensus on the need for companies to focus their efforts on stakeholders, and not just their shareholders (Becchetti & Trovato, 2011).
The reasons why companies engage in CSR differ depending on their explicit missions or hidden/ disguised motives. Others engage in CSR purely due to philanthropy, others always fall into the institutional or environmental pressures to work for the benefit of their societies, while others undertake these operations for the purpose of enhancing their reputation and as a form of marketing (Lee & Shin, 2010). The financial benefits to companies due to CSR differ greatly. According to Weber (2008), CSR enhances a company’s image and reputation, it helps in cost saving, it acts as a marketing platform and this results in increased future sales, it plays a positive role in motivating a company’s employees’, and it helps reducing CSR-related risks. Barnette and Salomon (2012) also identified CSR as an effective tool for enabling a company to attract talent, as a means for marketing, as a tool for creating unforeseen opportunities, and as a source of competitive advantage.
Lin, Yang, and Liou (2009) performed a study to establish the impact of CSR on influencing the net income of businesses in Taiwan. They examined 1000 Taiwanese firms between 2002 and 2004, and their study majored on business expenses, strategies, and CSR. From the research, it was established that CSR activities do not lead to short term increase in the profitability of companies. However, Lin et al. (2009, pp. 59) established that CSR can help in enhancing a company’s brand image and brand recognition. Nonetheless, the researchers found that CSR offers a significant long-term benefit to companies. Lin et al. (2009) also found out that investments in CSR help firms to balance short-term financial objectives and long-term goals, and this results in the creation of more sustainable goals.
A study by McWilliams and Siegel (2000) that aimed at establishing the reasons for inconsistency on research relating to CSR and financial performance of companies concluded that CSR does not have a direct impact on companies’ incomes. McWilliams and Siegel (2000, p. 597) research aimed at identifying the impact of CSR by regressing corporations’ net incomes and CSR. The study revealed that the effect of CSR on financial performance of companies is neutral. Nelling and Webb (2009) undertook a study to examine the relationship between corporate CSR and net incomes of companies. The researchers found that the two variables seem to be connected when testing the variable using traditional statistical techniques. Nelling and Webb (2009) used time series fixed effect method in their research. They concluded that there is a weak relationship between CSR and net incomes of companies. Nonetheless, the results suggested that CSR improves stock market performance of listed companies and contributes to higher firm investment.
A study by Inoue and Lee (2011, p. 798) that aimed at establishing the effects of diverse scopes of CSR on the financial performance of companies concluded that each aspect of CSR had a unique impact on a company’s performance. The authors conducted a study by focusing on specific issues that CSR can have on a company’s stakeholders. These issues were: product quality, environmental effects, employee relations, community relations, and diversity issues. Findings from the research indicated that every factor of CSR that was considered in the research has a distinct impact on both future and short-term profitability of a company depending on its industry. The financial results are different in the casino, aviation, restaurant, and hotel sectors (Inoue and Lee, 2011, pp.800).
Similarly, Saeidi, Sofian, Saeidi, Saeidi, and Saaeidi (2015) investigated how CSR influence companies’ financial performance. The study considered justifiable competitive advantage, reputation, and customer satisfaction as the possible primary reasons for the effects of CSR and business performance. The study involved companies in the consumer products and manufacturing sector in Iran. The research established that the relationship between CSR and company’s financial performance is arbitrated by various external factors. In particular, CSR’s effects on company performance is due to the positive influence of CSR on competitive advantage, brand image, business reputation, brand recognition, and customer satisfaction. Therefore, CSR indirectly promotes business performance by increasing the reputation and competitive advantage of companies while still enhancing customer satisfaction.
Based on the reviews of previous studies on the connection between CSR activities and financial performance of companies, it is unclear whether McDonald’s CSR activities have a positive effect. In some cases, CSR efforts result in an increase in net incomes, while in others, there are no significant effects. Lin et al. (2009) assert that there is a positive relationship between CSR and long-term fiscal performance of companies. McWilliams and Siegel (2000) opine that there is a neutral relationship between CSR and financial performance of companies. Nelling and Webb (2009) opine that CSR activities do not influence a company’s net incomes. Inoue and Lee (2011) discovered that every dimension of CSR had a distinct impact on both future and short-term success of a company depending on its industry. Lastly, Saeidi et al. (2015) showed that CSR indirectly promotes business growth by increasing firm’s competitive advantage and reputation while enhancing customer satisfaction.
Lee and Jung (2016) researched the effects of CSR on the profitability of a company. The main factor that prompted the researcher to conduct the research is their understanding that the primary aim of a business is maximizing profits required to pay the shareholders. The researchers understand that there is a need for a strategy for CSR to influence the company to be viable in the long term. CSR activities should be implemented to respect ethical principles, meet stakeholder demands, and provide a suitable reaction to organizational stakeholders. The aim of a study, Lee, and Jung (2016) involved identifying how the strength of the connection between CSR and profit. The research implemented logistics regressions to explain the relationship between the decision to implement CSR activities and benefits. The finding established that the businesses that perform CSR activities are more profitable (Lee and Jung, 2016, pp.1383-1406).
A study by Mohammed, Saheed, and Oladele (2016) focused on investigating the impact of CSR on the profits of beverages and food companies in Nigeria. The importance of the study related to increasing the understanding of the effect of CSR, income variability, size, and firm growth. The researchers used panel data for the duration between 2006 and 2017. The study findings showed a significant effect of CSR, size, and growth of firms have on income variability. The results also suggest that CSR, size, and growth of a firm have a positive impact on earnings per share. The researchers recommended that corporate organizations should develop financial policies for controlling their financial status. The implementation of CSR is an essential strategy in protecting all stakeholders (Mohammed, Saheed, and Oladele, 2016, pp.2222-1697).
Babalola (2012) researched to examine the connection between CSR and profitability of companies in Nigeria. The data used in the research was the annual reports from 1999 to 2008 from a sample of 10 randomly selected firms. The authors used the ordinary least square for the analysis of data. A survey by Akinleye and Faustina (2017) focused on investigating the impact of CSR on the profit margins of organizations in Nigeria. Besides, the authors analyzed the effect and relationship between CSR spending and the level of profit after tax. The researchers also investigated the correlation between corporate social expenditure and net profit. The study randomly selected a sample of five multinational firms. The researchers collated data from financial reports on the duration between the years 2010 and 2014. The researcher used correlation analysis, Granger causality estimation, random effect, and fixed effect and estimations, pooled estimation, and post estimation test in the study. The results of the study indicated that there is a negative correlation between corporate social expenditure and after-tax profit (-0.0648). The results of the study also showed that there is a unidirectional causal correlation from departmental social investment to after-tax profit for the selected corporations (f-stat=208.868, P=0.0440) (Akinleye & Faustina, 2017, p.19).
Nwaneri (2015) researched to establish the impact of CSR on organization profitability. The study aimed to enhance the understanding of CSR as a tactical tool for realizing organization profitability and competitive advantage. The researcher used data relating to an investment in CSR and profit after tax from Lafarge Africa PLC and Nigerian Breweries PLC annual reports for the duration between the years 2005 and 2014. The researcher analyzed collected data using the coefficient of correlation (R), simple regression, and coefficient of determination (R2). The study findings showed that there is a definite connection between investments in CSR and business profitability (Nwaneri, 2015, p.60). The researcher recommended that companies should create and implement CSR programs through the consultation of its stakeholders.
Several studies conducted to investigate the impact of CSR on customer loyalty (Servera Francés & Piqueras-Tomás, 2019, pp.66-84; Stanisavljević, M., 2016). The researcher conducted studies relating to the connection between CSR and customer loyalty because they value the importance of customer loyalty in influencing the financial performance of a company. Servera Francés and Piqueras-Tomás (2019) conducted a study to analyze how customers perceive the CSR activities carried out by firms. The study findings indicated that investment in CSR policies led to an improvement in client satisfaction, value, and brand loyalty. The researchers tested a model to investigate the causal relationships. The researcher examined the model using a sample of 408 Spanish hypermarket and supermarket consumers. Furthermore, the researcher used the variance-based technique to evaluate the structural model. The study findings indicated that CSR policies upsurge customers’ perception of trust, value, satisfaction, loyalty, and commitment towards the business (Servera Francés & Piqueras-Tomás, 2019, pp.66-84). The cost and originality of the study related to the focus of customer-connected CSR as a variable that supports a competitive variation of the business by increasing the connection with the customers and the improved observed value.
A study by Stanisavljević (2016) focused on investigating the influence of CSR dimensions on buyer loyalty. The main goal of the research was to determine whether customers understand the CSR. The other purpose of the study was to emphasize the implication that the customers give to specific dimensions of CSR. Additionally, the study sought to show insights about CSR dimensions affected customer loyalty. CSR is for the company’s diversity when customers understand and value the efforts. A socially responsible business should focus on law obedience, profit-making, and ethical business management. The researcher collected data using questionnaires. The process of data analysis involved regression and descriptive analysis. The study findings indicated that the majority of the study participants understood CSR terms. Specifically, the results showed the participants’ perception of the legal and economic dimensions of CSR. According to the study findings, there was an influence of the insights of CSR dimensions on buyer loyalty, particularly of financial and philanthropic aspects. The results from the study are essential to the management teams in companies to help in defining the business approach to improve customers’ satisfaction and loyalty.
2.4 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions and Financial Performance
There have been various studies on the relationship between GHG emission and financial performance (Busch and Hoffmann, 2011; Delmas and Nairn-Birch, 2011). GHG emission is increasingly becoming a concern to most companies and nations due the catastrophic weather-related tragedies that are related to global warming, which is caused by GHG (Griffiths et al., 2007). A significant issue with GHG is its ability to affect a company’s going concern and profitability in the long run. Social benefits of reducing GHG emissions may result in the protection of the environment, and this can help to avert natural disasters, while still enhancing the purchasing power of a company’s clients. Accordingly, the GHG underlying risks act as a significant drive for making managers to reduce their exposure by controlling their firms’ emission levels. In this regard, there is a need for establishing the relationship between GHG and financial performance of companies.
Research on the effects of GHG on companies and economies have mostly been based on the view of minimizing costs associated with regulations like carbon tax and ETS. At the firm level, these studies have focused on ways of setting the optimal levels of regulations to minimize the social costs of GHG by enhancing compliance to regulations. Studies show that CSR index represents positive relationship with companies’ shareholders since it enhances transparency in the firm by promoting disclosure of sensitive information (Oh, Chang, & Martynov, 2011). Accordingly, information on CSR is an incentive for investors and shareholders to put capital into a company. Environmental CSR is associated with a positive brand image and this leads to enhanced corporate profitability (Khojastehpour & Johns, 2014). Therefore, understanding the relationship between GHG and financial performance is profitable for companies. For example, if a reduction in GHG emissions has an effect of enhancing a company’s reputation, it is likely that consumers will enhance their willingness to purchase its products.
The argument for the embracement of controls against GHG emissions is based on two approaches: win-lose and win-win forms of reasoning (Boiral et al., 2012). In the win-lose reasoning, controls for GHG emissions are viewed as means of distracting competitors from their main objectives while still enhancing a company’s brand image. In the win-win reasoning, controls for GHG emission is viewed as means of enabling an organization to enhance its competitiveness. There are mixed findings on the effects of GHG on organization’s financial performance. A study by Delmas and Nairn-Birch (2011), which the undertook using a Tobin q model established that return on assets and return on equity are significantly lower for companies that have enhanced measures to reduce GHG when compared to those without measures. Interestingly, using process-based models, Busch and Hoffmann (2011) established that that there is a negative relationship between a reduction in GHG and the Tobin-q in an outcome-based measurement. However, the relationship is negative in a process-based measurement.
Controls on GHG have also an impact on a firm’s stock particularly in nations that have implemented carbon regulations (Ziegler et al., 2009). GHG positively influences the stocks that are in countries with emission trading schemes (ETS), such as those in the European Union (EU) than in those without ETS regulations (Ziegler et al., 2009). A study by (Wang, Li, & Gao, 2014) that was done using Tobin q for companies in Australia established that there is a positive relationship between reduction in GHG emission and financial performance of companies. However, the results of this research differed from those of Alvarez (2012) who established that there is no relationship between financial performance of companies and their GHG emissions. Hart and Ahuja (1996) also established that GHG does not have a relationship with financial performance.
The reviewed literature provides information relating to the impact that CSR activities have on business financial status. The literature review also focuses on other research that sought to establish the connection between CSR and other aspects, such as customer loyalty and profitability, that influences company financial performance. Lin et al. (2009) found out that there is a definite connection between CSR and long-term fiscal advantage of the firm. Saeidi et al. (2015) showed that CSR indirectly promotes business performance by increasing competitive advantage and reputation while enhancing customer satisfaction. Lee and Jung (2016) discovered that businesses that implement CSR activities are more profitable. According to Akinleye and Faustina (2017), there is a unidirectional causal correlation from corporate social expenditure to after-tax profit for the selected corporations. Nwaneri (2015) revealed the connection between investments in CSR and business profitability. Stanisavljević (2016) discovered that there was an influence of the insights of CSR dimensions on buyer loyalty, particularly of economic and philanthropic aspects.
H0: A reduction in McDonald’s energy consumption as a CSR initiative increases the company’s net incomes.
H1: A reduction in McDonald’s energy consumption as a CSR initiative does not increase the company’s net incomes.
H0: A reduction in McDonald’s greenhouse gas emissions as a CSR initiative increases the company’s net incomes.
H1: A reduction in McDonald’s greenhouse gas emissions as a CSR initiative does not increase the company’s net incomes.
A quantitative analysis was undertaken in this study. Since the conclusions and findings from this method are strictly based on the analytical results, this method avoids biases that can occur during qualitative studies. This research uses the correlation analysis and ANOVA to establish whether an increase in community social responsibility (CSR) results in an increase in McDonald’s financial performance. The CSR indicators in this research are energy consumption and greenhouse gasses (GHG). Therefore, the study does a correlation for McDonald’s financial performance, energy consumption, and greenhouse gases to establish the relationship among the three variables. An analysis of variables (ANOVA) helps in determining the significance of each variable on the overall financial performance of McDonald’s Inc.
The study uses only a sample from 2014 to 2017. The lack of a comprehensive list of CSR activities from McDonald for years before 2014 compels the research to be limited to the years between 2014 and 2017. The variables of interest in the study are net income, energy consumption, and greenhouse gases. Net income is representative of the financial performance of McDonald. Energy consumption is an indicator of the company’s efforts to reduce its use of non-renewable energy. Greenhouse gases indicate the level of pollutions attributable to McDonald’s Inc. Data for this research is retrieved from the United States Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) fillings and McDonald’s website (“EDGAR/Company Filings,” 2019; “Financial Information,” 2019). Information regarding McDonald’s CSR is on the company’s website (“Progress and Performance,” 2019).
The ANOVA analysis established the regression model that explained the relationship among net income, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas at McDonald’s. The research model for the study was as follows:
PERF= β0 + β1E.Cons. + β2GHG + e
PERF= McDonald’s Net Income
E.Cons.= Energy consumption
GHG= Greenhouse gases.
β = Coefficients
Correlation analysis established the strength and the direction, whether a positive or negative relationship, among net income, energy consumption, and greenhouse gases. The regression analysis explained the effects of each variable on net income. ANOVA analysis showed if the impact of the independent variables on the dependent variable were significant or if they occurred just by chance.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
The correlation for Net income with energy consumption is -0.6204. This information indicates a strong opposite relationship.
The correlation for net income with greenhouse gas is -0.8064. This data shows a strong opposite relationship.
The correlation for energy consumption and greenhouse gas is 0.9636. This information shows a strong positive relationship.
Adjusted R Square
Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
Correlation for McDonald’s net income with energy consumption, and greenhouse gases is negative and strong. These findings establish that an increase in CSR activities for the company is not followed by a similar increase in sales. Correlation for net income and energy consumption is -0.6204, which is a moderately negative relationship. Correlation for net income and greenhouse gas is -0.8064, which is a strong negative relationship.
In the regression model, the p-values were 0.08657 and 0.06519 for energy consumption and greenhouse gas, respectively. The p-values were greater than the alpha value of 0.05 that was used in this study, and this shows that there is weak evidence against the null hypothesis. Therefore, we do not reject the null hypothesis. In this regard, there is a relationship between energy consumption and McDonald’s net income. There is also a relationship between greenhouse gas and net income in McDonald.
From the findings in the regression model we find the following estimated regression model
PERF= β0 + β1E.Cons. + β2GHG + e
PERF = 7158.154 + 0.2180 E.Cons. – 640.8076GHG + e
The results of the estimated regression model show the following:
- An increase in energy consumption by one unit will result in a 0.2180 increase in McDonald’s net incomes
- An increase in greenhouse gas emissions by 1 unit will result in a 640.8076 decrease in McDonald’s net incomes.
Various studies have established that CSR is essential for increasing a company’s brand awareness, incomes, and customer loyalty. In this regard, CSR is regarded as an indirect form of sales and marketing that enables a company to engage its consumers in their ordinary activities. The findings from this study establish that CSR has an impact on McDonald’s financial performance. In the model, the p-values were 0.08657 and 0.06519 for energy consumption and greenhouse gas, respectively. The p-values were greater than the alpha value of 0.05 that was used in this study, and this shows that there is weak evidence against the null hypothesis. Therefore, we do not reject the null hypothesis. In this regard, there is a relationship between energy consumption and McDonald’s net income. Similarly, the p-value of 0.06519 for greenhouse gas is more than the alpha value, and this shows that there is a relationship between greenhouse gas and net income.
The results of this research conform to those of past scholars in this topic. Research by Tong and Wang (2016) established that CSR activities such as reduced energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gas emission enhance a company’s brand image and increase the willingness of consumers to purchase from it. Similarly, Saeidi et al. (2015) observed that CSR has positive impacts on a company’s financial performance mainly due to its influences on the organization’s reputation and competitive advantage. A study by Lin et al. (2009, pp. 59) established that there are no direct and immediate financial gains to firms that implement CSR programs. Nonetheless, it enables them to enhance their brand image and brand awareness. Moreover, CSR programs help an organization to create a healthy balance between short term financial objectives with long-term goals that are related to corporate branding and strategic positioning. Similarly, McWilliams and Siegel (2000, p. 607) established that CSR does not have any significant impact on the financial performance of organizations. A study by Nelling and Webb (2009, p. 204) concluded that while CSR does not have a direct impact on the net incomes of companies, it helps to increase the value of stock prices. Saeidi et al. (2015) research on CSR also concluded that while CSR does not improve a business’ financial performance, it increases its competitive advantage because of improved brand image and reputation of having a concern to its community.
Corporate social responsibility is essential for enabling a company to create its brand by being a responsible corporate citizen. Provision of CSR services, such as free schools, free healthcare, roads, energy, and protection of the environment, makes customers proudly associate with a specific company. While it is not clear whether CSR has direct financial benefits to a company, its social impacts are immediate and clear.
From this research, the CSR efforts by McDonald’s result in some impact on its net incomes. The correlations for net income, energy consumption, and greenhouse gases for the company are negative. The correlation between energy consumption and net income is -0.6204. Therefore, a decrease in energy consumption by 1-unit results in an increase in net income by $0.64204. Note, the objective of McDonald’s is to reduce its net energy consumption by been more efficient in its operations. The company achieves this goal by purchasing energy efficient machinery and operations equipment. The correlation between greenhouse gas and net income its -0.8064. Accordingly, a decrease in greenhouse gases by 1-unit leads to an increase in the net income of the company by $0.8064. The negative relationship between greenhouse gas and net income is due to McDonald’s objective of reducing its overall emission of greenhouse gases. In the regression model, the p-values were 0.08657 for energy consumption and 0.06519 greenhouse gas, respectively. The p-values were greater than the alpha value of 0.05, and this shows that there is weak evidence against the null hypothesis. Therefore, we do not reject the null hypothesis. In this regard, an increase in energy efficiency also increases McDonald’s net income. A decrease in greenhouse gas increases McDonald’s net income. While the results show that we should not reject the null hypothesis, it is noteworthy to know that its variation from the alpha value is marginal. The p-value for greenhouse gas is marginally greater than the alpha value. Therefore, the decrease in greenhouse gas can have a result of either increasing the company’s net incomes or decreasing its net incomes.
McDonald should continue in its efforts to reduce its energy consumption levels. It should pursue this goal for the primary reason of benefiting its community. However, this measure can also increase the company’s net income because the study establishes that reducing energy consumption has positive effects on the company’s profits.
McDonald Inc. should also continue on its efforts to reduce greenhouse gases to protect its community. The study establishes that there are effects of reducing greenhouse gases on the company’s net incomes. Therefore, it would be reasonable for McDonald to expect to make incomes by reducing its energy consumption or level of greenhouse gas emissions.
A significant limitation of this research was inadequate finances. An alternative method to qualitative analysis that I would have used in this study was mixed research. This method entails the use of both quantitative and qualitative analysis, and it would provide the study with a robust view of the impact of CSR on its net income. Therefore, it is more robust than the use of the qualitative method alone. Unfortunately, this method is more expensive and time-consuming. The resources available for the study would not sufficiently support its implementation.
Another limitation of the research was time. The study was undertaken over a short period, and this limited the research methods applicable. Methods such as questionnaires and interviews require a lot of time, and could therefore not be implemented in this study. Available information on McDonald’s CSR activities was small. The only credible data that was available was that between 2017 and 2014.
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Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
Green House Gas (GHG)
Adjusted R Square
ANOVA: Coefficients, Standard Error, t-Stat, and p-Value
Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) [GWh]
Ethical opinion form for Faculty of Business and Law (BAL) taught undergraduate and postgraduate students (except MRes)
Instructions to student
This form should be completed by the student, referring to the Guidance Notes to accompany this form and the ‘Research ethics – issues to consider’ guide (also to be found as an appendix to the Guidance Notes). If you are not collecting primary data or data that are identifiable with individuals, then you should answer Qs 1-4, then Q11 and as many of the questions between Qs 12-20 as are relevant in your case. The completed form should then be passed to the supervisor prior to a review of the possible ethical implications of the proposed dissertation or project. Students should read the guidance that accompanies this form to help them complete it.
No primary data collection or recruitment of potential participants must be undertaken before a final version of this form has been approved.
If, following review of this form, amendments to the proposals are agreed to be necessary, the student should provide the supervisor with an amended version for endorsement.
If, following the completion of the review process, your supervisor and, where relevant, any independent reviewer is unwilling to grant you a favourable ethical opinion, you have a right of appeal to BAL Faculty Ethics Committee. If you wish to exercise this right, email the Faculty Ethics Administrator (email address available from your supervisor), stating your name, HEMIS no., the relevant unit and course, and briefly stating your grounds for requesting that BAL Faculty Ethics Committee review the decision. Attach your completed ethics form and any supplementary documentation and include any relevant correspondence about the case.
A final signed and dated version of this form must be bound in to however many copies of the dissertation you are required to hand in. The form MUST be signed and dated by both the student, the supervisor and, where required, any peer ethics reviewer. If the dissertation is submitted without a fully completed, signed and dated ethics form it will be deemed to be a fail. Second attempt assessment may be permitted by the Board of Examiners.
- What are the objectives of the dissertation / research project?
Objectives of the study are as follows:
- To find out if there is a relationship between CSR and McDonald’s financial performance.
- To establish the effects of McDonald’s greenhouse gas pollution as a CSR measure on its financial performance.
- To identify the effects of a decrease in McDonald’s energy consumption as a CSR measure on its financial performance.
- Does the research involve NHS patients, resources or staff?
- Does the research involve MoD staff?
- Do you intend to collect primary data from human subjects or data that are identifiable with individuals? (This includes, for example, questionnaires and interviews.) YES / NO (please delete as applicable)
5 How will the primary data contribute to the objectives of the dissertation / research project?
- What is/are the survey population(s)?
- a) How big is the sample for each of the survey populations, and b) how was this sample arrived at? (Please answer both parts of this question.)
- How will respondents be a) recruited and b) selected? (Please answer both parts of this question.)
- What steps are proposed to ensure that the requirements of informed consent will be met for those taking part in the research? If an Information Sheet for participants is to be used, please attach it to this form. If not, please explain how you will be able to demonstrate that informed consent has been gained from participants.
- How will data be collected from each of the sample groups?
- a) How will data be stored and b) what will happen to the data at the end of the research? (Please answer both parts of this question.)
I will record the data in an excel sheet and store it in my computer. The secondary data used in this research is publicly available at the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and at McDonald’s website. At the end of the research, I will save a copy of the excel file in the University’s for potential check and reference.
- What measures will be taken to prevent unauthorised persons gaining access to the data, and especially to data that may be attributed to identifiable individuals?
The data is publicly available.
- What steps are proposed to safeguard the anonymity of the respondents?
Not applicable. The data is free and publicly available.
- Are there any risks (physical or other, including reputational) to respondents that may result from taking part in this research?
- Are there any risks (physical or other, including reputational) to the researcher or to the University that may result from conducting this research?
- Will any data be obtained from a company or other organisation?
- What steps are proposed to ensure that the requirements of informed consent will be met for that organisation? How will confidentiality be assured for the organisation?
The information is free and publicly available. No consent is required from the company.
- Does the organisation have its own ethics procedure relating to the research you intend to carry out? YES / NO (please delete as applicable).
If YES, the University will require written evidence from the organisation that they have approved the research.
- Will the proposed research involve any of the following (please put a √ next to ‘yes’ or ‘no’; consult your supervisor if you are unsure):
Vulnerable groups (e.g. children and adults unable to consent)?
Particularly sensitive topics?
Access to respondents via ‘gatekeepers’?
Use of deception?
Access to confidential personal data (names, addresses, etc)?
Psychological stress, anxiety, etc.?
If answers to any of the above are “YES”, please explain below how you intend to minimise the associated risks.
- Are there any other ethical issues that may arise from the proposed research?
I / we grant a favourable ethical opinion:
Peer reviewer (where applicable)
If you need to make changes please ensure you have permission before recruiting any participants and any primary data collection. If there are major changes, fill in a new form if that will make it easier for everyone. If there are minor changes then fill in the amendments (next page) and get them signed before the primary data collection begins.
CHANGES TO ETHICS PERMISSION
Please describe the nature of the change and impact on ethics:
I / we grant a favourable ethical opinion:
Peer reviewer (where applicable)
(please cut and paste the next section, together with the heading at the top of this page, as many times as required)
Please describe the nature of the change and impact on ethics:
I / we grant a favourable ethical opinion:
Peer reviewer (where applicable)
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