Topic: Emotional intelligent Essay
The terms self-awareness, self-management, empathy and social skills are what constitute emotional-intelligence. They are one of the characters that a high quality leader should possess to manage the place of work efficiently.
They distinct the leadership of a person with high performance since he/she can be able to interact well with employees. Possession of these guarantees gives a person the validity to be a leader.
Self-awareness, it’s one the component of emotional intelligence that makes a person have a sense of understanding him/herself. The person is able to comprehend his emotions, the existing weaknesses and limitations in him.
his character makes one to evaluates him/herself and identifies how the impacts of his/her emotions to other people. It helps one to organize the work well in relation to his or her goals in advance hence can work with clients. It helps people also to recognize the limitation of others and be able to manage. Self-awareness leads to self-management.
Self-management is the capability in a person that makes him/her be in control of his/her emotions. The person is also able to work with honesty and integrity. When one is upset, he/she never let those emotions overrule him, instead he manage them by solving in reasonable ways. He able to identify the source and have the way out. Self-management reduces conflicts and misunderstanding at ones place of work with others.
It also help one to organize and plan for the work since he/she understands him/herself better in terms of managements thus do the work that is manageable.
Empathy is the capability of a person to comprehend and appreciates the feelings of other parties or person when making certain minds.
It exhibits itself in speech and decision from a person. For instance when a bad occurrence like fire reduces some items to ashes in a business or place of work, the kind of talk that will come from the manager will tell either he/she have the feelings for other people or not.
Rude, insolent decisions will demoralize the workers and those with experience will flee. But a kind speech and decisions generated from feelings of other workers will motivate unity and faithfulness at the work of place hence motivating them. Many will resolve to work hand in hand with him voluntarily because he/she cares.
Social skills is the competence that exist in a person enabling him or her to create and manages the relationships. The base or the foundation of the relationship is too sturdy to break and mostly it has an agenda or solid purpose that directs people in one direction.
Social skill enhances work. It brings many minds together and encourages team work. People with high social skills can promotes the job by motivating worker. They understand the time and season, the moods of people and initiates a perfect motivational talks accordingly.
Social skills enhances one accord of work from many people. Social skills people never limits people in relations. That it doesn’t only stick to workers or people in groups but it involves relating to other none party since at one time a point of need will arise.
The ability to have these quality emotional intelligence help one to create different moods and environment within his/her surroundings. It help one to regard and value him/herself, manage others and himself also, feel for and socialize with others well. This is what makes a leader.
1 Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2001). Primal leadership: The hidden driver of great performance. Harvard business review, 79(11), 42-53.
2 Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2013). Primal leadership. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts (2004, paperback edition).
3. Goleman, D., & Boyatzis, R. (2008). Social intelligence and the biology of leadership. Harvard business review, 86(9), 74-81.
4 Goleman, D. (2004). What makes a leader?. harvard business review, 82(1), 82-91……WHATS MAKES A LEADER
Topic 2: Barriers Faced by the Poor in Finding Work and Making a Living in Central America Essay
The Central American region experienced a long duration of political unrest and civil conflicts over the previous decade. Many of the Central American states experienced a slow economic growth, low inflation rates, and a growth in foreign direct investments (FDI). Such positive economic achievement could be attributed to properly macroeconomic and fiscal policies as well as trade reforms.
Most significantly, the Dominican Republic of Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) greatly tried to minimize the barriers linked to trade and foreign direct investments between the Central American states, United States, and the Dominican Republic (Bashir et al., 3). Most of the Central American states, with the exception of Panama and Costa Rica, have not obtained a high productivity resulting from growth. A great percentage of economic growth in the region has emanated from the agriculture sector outweighing manufacturing and services sectors.
Agriculture and Manufacturing Sectors
The reduced rate of unemployment in the region could be attributed to the migration and economic growth experienced in the region. Most of the unskilled individuals have been absorbed in the agriculture and services sectors. The level of employment in the manufacturing industry has also increased in few countries but reduced in most states.
Besides, the emigration of the youth, mainly comprising of unskilled laborers, to the United States and within the Central American region has substantially promoted absorption of labor and income generation.
Such factors have largely contributed to maintaining an average rate of unemployment in a stable and reduced manner as per the Latin American Standards (Bashir et al., 5). Moreover, the rate of unemployment among the young generation in the region still demonstrates a high trend that is a bit shocking since the labor force is expected to grow in the future.
The focus of the economic policies formulated in the region on increased job creation targeting at breaking the poverty cycle and promotion of a stable growth in the economy can be explained in various ways (Schmalzbauer, 20).
These may include the expectation that the rise in the number of unemployed youth is likely to result in inequality and hence violent crime which is a threat to economic growth. Another reason may be that the creation of employment raises the vulnerability to shocks in the commodity prices and economic crisis and thus necessitating the maintenance of employment growth at its pre-crisis status.
The other possible reason is that most of the jobs have been created in the low productivity and technology industries, therefore, outlining the stagnation of the real wages and aggregate productivity over the last ten years. The implication is that creating employment in higher value-added activities is of great significance since it increases the economic growth rate in the Central American region (Bashir et al., 6). It also results in the improvement of real wages and the overall living standards among the residents of the region.
Poverty and Inequality
The main employment barrier in Central America is the development of better conditions to foster the generation of more productive employment in the context of a rapidly increasing labor force. Controlling such barriers could lead to poverty reduction, low inequality, and reduced social exclusion. Such factors have been prevalent in many states of the Central American region.
In handling such challenges, there is the need for implementation of policies that enable producers and employees to move up the value chain (Bashir et al., 6). This may sometimes mean the diversification of the production structure through expansion of the manufacturing and services share. At other times it may imply an improvement of the technological and knowledge aspect of the already existing activities to increase their productivity, i.e., agriculture.
Low-Skilled Labor Force
The region could also consider a great improvement regarding a large number of the unskilled labor force. Specifically, the quality and accessibility of high school, and college education. The available secondary and higher education is regarded to be of a low quality. Another significant aspect can include the development of human capital equipped with at least a scientific or technical skill to promote the embrace of new and technological advancements.
The region should also ascertain that its labor force and human capital are guarded against income shocks and poverty by using an effective system for social protection (Portes et al., 15). The implication is that the existing programs require assessment and the respective state governments may have to make an improvement of coordination, reduction of fragmentation, and expansion of the coverage.
Employment in North America is mainly found in the agriculture and services sectors. The rising agricultural employment is usually as a result of economic growth (Bashir et al., 9). All the states in Central America have a significant employment growth in the services industry. Such services mainly include the restaurant, hotel, and retail services. Costa Rica, Panama, and El Salvador have witnessed a significant employment growth in the services relating to business and various knowledge-intensive services such as medicine, education, and public sector among others.
Most of the available employment opportunities in Central America are low-skilled. Many of the Central American states have people who have low attainments regarding education when compared to other countries at the same development level.
This is of course with the exception of Panama and Costa Rica whose educational attainment levels are beyond the Latin American average. Research implies that Panama is the only country with education attainment levels which are better than other countries at the same level of development. The rest of the countries in Central America, apart from Costa Rica and Panama, usually specialize in exporting commodities which are typically unskilled labor-intensive (Bashir et al., 14). The only two areas in Central America where skill-intensive and knowledge-intensive commodities and services constitute a significant percentage of exports are Costa Rica and Panama.
The knowledge-intensive services are offered in various departments including financial, transport and communications among others. Such departments have provided the highest level of employment for the people of Central America with the exception of Nicaragua.
Since the poor people in Central America may not have access to quality education, they are most likely to end up in low-skilled occupations (Reardon et al., 16). Since the economies of Central America are export-oriented, the labor-intensive and knowledge-intensive services provide an avenue for increasing the demand for high-skilled labor, and thus, could allow an exit from the unsustainable and low-skilled labor-intensive production of exports. The labor force may also be educated and the countries will need to establish an improved infrastructure regarding information technology.
Besides the growth of employment, emigration has provided a significant alternative absorption for the labor force in Central America over the previous decades. A great percentage of the labor people from El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua have emigrated to the US, especially in search of well-paying jobs (Schmalzbauer, 25).
The process of emigration has been beneficial to the people of Central America since they have improved their remittances and hence lowered the poverty level and offers a buffer against shocks. However, emigration may pose some negative impacts in that it may reduce the available labor force in most affected countries. The reduction of human capital may result in various ways.
The labor force that is highly skilled is likely to emigrate leaving behind the less-skilled section of human capital (Bashir et al., 15). The implication is that emigration may cause some form of a “brain drain” hence negatively impacting on the average human capital level of the working population in the Central American region.
The emigration also seems to have negatively impacted on the investment in education among the young people who remain behind.
This is partly due to the incentives to make educational investments and the negative consequences resulting from emigration of the parents. This is evidenced in that, high educational returns are obtained in El Salvador and Guatemala, but such returns are low among the Salvadoran and Guatemalan immigrants are low compared to their counterparts born and raised in the US. The educated emigrants from Central America often get the low-skilled jobs in the US (Bashir et al., 16).
The reason for such trends may be due to the low quality of education provided in the Central American countries or even the incompatibility of the education system with that offered in the US. The incompatibility makes the US employers not to value the education originally obtained by the immigrants from their home areas.
The main benefit is that the wages paid to the low-skilled labor are high in the US as opposed to the amount paid in Central America.
Such aspects imply that the process of emigration and getting employment in the US could result in higher remittance rather than invest in higher education in Central America. The higher education gained in Central America may play a small role in improving the income earned by immigrants when they get to the US. The implication is that emigration is likely to lower private investment in education as a result of the reduced incentives for the young people in Central America to be maintained in the education system not considering whether the returns are only high in the region.
The young people whose parents may have emigrated are likely to end up adopting several vices in life which may negatively impact on the region in future. Such children may even drop out of school leading to a negative impact on the labor force through an increase in unskilled labor.
There are several barriers which face the poor individuals during the process of finding work in the Central American region. Such challenges include low skills, poor quality of education, emigration, low remunerations, and low technological advancements among others. The poor people in Central America mainly depend on the agriculture sector for income generation.
The manufacturing sector also provides employment for a few individuals in the region. Thus, the poor people in Central America face numerous challenges in the process of searching for jobs but alternatively, they have other channels of making a living including being actively involved in the agriculture sector.
Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. Why nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity, and poverty. Broadway Business, 2013.
Bashir, Sajitha, T. H. Gindling, and Ana Maria Oviedo. Better jobs in Central America: the role of human capital. World Bank., 2012.
Fay, Marianne. The urban poor in Latin America. World Bank Publications, 2005.
Portes, Alejandro, and Rubén G. Rumbaut. Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. Univ of California Press, 2001.
Reardon, Thomas, Julio Berdegué, and Germán Escobar. “Rural nonfarm employment and incomes in Latin America: overview and policy implications.” World development 29.3 (2001): 395-409.
Schmalzbauer, Leah. “Searching for wages and mothering from afar: The case of Honduran transnational families.” Journal of marriage and family 66.5 (2004): 1317-1331.
Topic 3: Stereotypes Threats Essay
Our sociality – our connections with others and our social condition – are key to the learning process. However, while our sociality is foundational to the learning procedure, it is this very amiability that can likewise obstruct our learning. Social environments, social identity, and cultural stereotypes, of campuses and colleges, shape the scholarly achievement, character, and inspiration in students.
This essay concentrates on the learning sociability looking at what research and experiments portray regarding the influences of stereotyping on performance and learning in our college campuses and interventions that can be taken to address situational factors and relieve the negative impact of generalizations.
First, we need to understand what stereotype is.
The stereotype is an established, conclusion about a class of individuals or specific gathering. A “stereotype threat” emerges when a person is in a situation full of dread of making an accomplishment of a thing which might incidentally affirm a negative stereotype. It is of importance to understand that the individual may encounter a danger regardless of the possibility that he or she doesn’t trust the stereotype.
The person sees that the generalization is a convincing portrayal of himself or herself by others. At least everyone encounters the stereotype threat. Each one of us comes from a group in which there is the existence of negative stereotype, from the elderly to women, Methodists, and men. This threat debilitates behavior of the minority group, as observed by Steele.
It targets universities and colleges thus influencing student’s practices such as associating with fellow students from other groups, seeking help from the instructors and the authority, participating in class, etc. Conferring with Steele, stereotype threat creates cautious stress that might lead to destabilization in performance and spotlight anxiety that leads to emotional suffering. Scholars emphasize that their future might be traded off by society’s discernment and their group treatment hence focus less on the test questions.
Steele conducted an experiment on White and African American undergraduates who took a hard aptitude related test under two different conditions and performance was compared.
The results demonstrated that Black American members showed less performance than the whites under a stereotype threat condition, yet in the state with no stereotype threat, they performed equally to their white partners. Undergraduates taking the test under stereotype threat may likewise wind up noticeably wasteful on the test by reviewing the answers and questions and additionally going back to confirm their answers, unlike when under non-stereotype threat condition.
Poignant happens to be the second thing: what opens students stereotype threat pressure is not their aptitudes and poor academic position but rather their academic strength and abilities. They may have long considered themselves to be superior to most. But they pay an additional tax on their venture due to their strengths—thus creating a cautious stress that their future will be traded off by society’s group treatment and discernment.
This expense has a long convention in the black community. Most likely the scholastic precursor among African undergraduates today knows this custom—and knows, in this way, that the activity, as my dad let me know, is to lock in, pay whatever due is required, and discredit the damn generalization. Stereotype threat causes and ineffectiveness of handling much like that caused by other evaluative weights. Stereotype-debilitated members invested more energy doing fewer things more incorrectly most likely because of changing their consideration between endeavoring to answer the questions and attempting to survey the self-essentialness of their disappointment.
This type of debilitation decreased accuracy and speed has been revealed as a response to competition, the presence of an audience, test anxiety, and apprehending assessment. Tragically, the exertion that goes with stereotype threat claims an extra cost. It was found that the pulse of black undergraduates executing a hard task that needed reasoning within a stereotype threat, was higher in comparison with their friends under no stereotype threat or the white students under identical circumstances.
If this persuades you that stereotype threat is an issue, then you should be pondering about things that can ideally be used to decrease the danger. Here are a few of the interventions to stereotype threat: One is that teachers should give good examples and be aware of signs. Ladies and underrepresented minorities are frequently searching for signals that they belong.
It is a piece of why having assorted variety at the staff level is so critical, in any case, once more, this is something that can’t be changed instantly. Notwithstanding, teachers can do different things to give good examples and to demonstrate that learners from underrepresented groups are esteemed. For instance, in schooling, there are frequently clusters of conceivable illustrations that could be utilized to feature a particular idea (e.g., rivalry). Given loads of choices, they should at least pick works of a scientist of color or a woman.
Studies have demonstrated that helping ladies to remember prominent women, reduces the gap in sexual orientation in math. On the other hand, doing things that strengthen a negative generalization, (for example, using videos portraying gender-stereotype) can bring down examination performance for the stereotyped gathering.
Another way is to reframe the test in a way that decreases stereotype threat. One way to deal with doing this is to state that the test is a critical thinking exercise instead of something analytic of their knowledge.
In any case, that approach appears to be hard to execute with regards to a school exam (however may work for something like qualifying exams). Something that will probably work in a school classroom is, if conceivable, to state that men and ladies (or that scholars from underrepresented gatherings) are known to perform similarly well on the issues being given. In any case, this appears like it is hard to actualize in many classes. Also, educate students about stereotype threat, and advise them that thinking about it helps shield them from its belongings.
It likewise can empower them about imposter syndrome, and to advise them that it is incredibly average (particularly for ladies and individuals from underrepresented minorities) to think their prosperity to date has been a fluke and that they will be discovered. (One investigation detailed in Whistling Vivaldi found that having different students associate about their everyday disappointments helped them from underrepresented gatherings since it helped them understand that their battles weren’t identified with their way of life as an individual from an adversely stereotyped mass.) It’s simple for undergraduates to imagine that their teachers probably had A’s throughout their studies which, of course, is false.
The fourth strategy would be to encourage affirmation of values. Essentially having undergraduates compose short articles about their most imperative esteems (a procedure called “affirmation of value”) can enhance performance, and, most astoundingly, the advantage of this short exercise can keep going for a considerable length of time or even years. Also, show that capacities can be progressed.
Telling scholars that capabilities and insight can be extended can enhance accomplishment and wipe out sexual orientation contrasts in performance. It is thus entirely direct and appears to be something that could without much of a stretch be applied in a graduate training, class, and so forth. I adore this investigation on this point, where learners were urged to compose letters to more young students who were battling intellectually.
A significant portion of the learners was advised to tell the more young ones that knowledge is “like a muscle” and can enhance with exertion; African American students who composed letters discussing insight as improvable would do well to grades nine weeks after the fact. Also, schools should set up strategies for helping African American leaners rest in critical part on presumptions about their brain science. As noted, they are commonly accepted to need certainty, which produces an approach to confidence building.
It might be helpful for students at the scholarly rearguard of the gathering. In any case, the brain science of the scholastic vanguard seems unique underperformance seems, by all accounts, to be established less in self-question than in social doubt.
Therefore, concerning risk, I continue asking why it just works in a single path (causing scores that are dependable “too cheap”) and why, on the off chance that it exists, the influenced learners can get many tests correct and just waver on some when they get to realize the stereotype? Is diminishing the risks in stereotype a supernatural answer for taking care of issues related to student’s performance? Obviously not. Be that as it may, as Claude Steele puts it for stereotyped capacity learners, diminishing personality threat is similarly as vital as expertise and acquiring facts in deciding achievements of undergraduates. Luckily, a portion of the procedures for countering stereotype threat is simple to execute.
I expect to bring issues to the light of the marvel, and additionally strategies on how to combat it. One thing Steele underlines in Whistling Vivaldi is that you don’t have to counter every conceivable negative prompt. Rather, you must influence learners to feel “personality safe” – that is, you should roll sufficiently out fundamental improvements that demonstrate that assorted variety is valued.